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History

1. PREHISTORY

Some author has pointed out: ‘We are convinced that the ethnic roots of the Valencian lands are in the Alcalà Valley, particularly in the area between the Barranquet of Beniaia, the Barranc de les Ronches, the Solana de la Cairola and the Planet of the Condoig ‘.

In fact, in the Barranquet of Beniaia there is a deposit of stone tools, with an abundance of ‘chopers’ (useful carved on boulders, made on a side of the song) and ‘chopping-tools’ (more elaborate artifacts that Present a sinuous edge obtained with direct percussion on the two sides), that we would go back to the arrival of the primitive man in the Paleolithic Inferior.

1.1 PINTURAS RUPRESTRES EN LA ‘COVA DEL PELEGRÍ’

Inside it has recently discovered cave paintings consisting of two motifs, a cape and another unidentified motif, which use color to delimit the contour of the figures. Due to its resemblance to that found in the Cova de Reinós in Vall d`Ebo, a border town, its dating corresponds to Solutrense, a period of the Upper Paleolithic, which began in Valencia about 21,000 years ago. It is pending study and proper archaeological excavation.

1.2 EL ‘ABRIG DEL TOSSAL DE LA ROCA’

Imagen del Abrig del TossalIn the vicinity of the Moorish town of La Roca, the Abrig del Tossal de la Roca preserves an exceptional sequence within the Valencian Prehistory, which has made it possible to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental, economic, technological and social transformation of the last human groups of hunter gatherers and the Development of the first groups of producer societies.

The Shelter was almost continuously occupied by primitive man for 6,500 years. The oldest remains are from 14,000 years ago and the most recent ones from 7,500 years ago. It corresponds to the Magdalenian period, the last phase of the Upper Paleolithic and links with the Mesolithic.

The excavations have been carried out by an interdisciplinary team led by CARMEN CACHO QUESADA, Department of History of the National Archaeological Museum, and formed by JESÚS JORDÀ PARDO, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Geology and Geochemistry of the Autonomous University of Madrid, IGNACIO DE LA TORRE SÁINZ, Department of Prehistory of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid and JOSÉ IRAVEDRA SÁINZ DE LOS TERREROS, Laboratory of Paleolithic Studies of the National University of Distance Education.

Imagen del Abrig del tossal de la rocaLos niveles inferiores del Abrigo, atribuidos al magdaleniense Superior se fechan entre el 13.690 (Nivel III) y el 12.290 (Nivel II). Han proporcionado numerosos restos de industria lítica microlítica entre los que dominan los útiles sobre hojita de dorso, así como algunos triángulos escalenos y buriles. Junto a algunas azagayas de asta y punzones, se ha documentado la presencia de un arpón de una sola hilera de dientes, fabricado en hueso. Se trata de uno de lo escasos ejemplares completos de la vertiente mediterránea española. En el Nivel I se ha encontrado gran abundancia de raspadores y un menor número de útiles sobre hojita. Un pequeño hogar localizado en este nivel ha permitido datarlo en torno al 11.800.

El relleno arqueológico se completa con otras unidades litoestratigráficas correspondientes al Holoceno y localizadas sólo en el sector exterior del Abrigo. Las dos inferiores, IIb y IIa, si sitúan entre hace 9.000 y 8.000 años y contienen un registro arqueológico característico del Epipaleolítico antiguo o inicial. Su industria fundamentalmente lítica muestra junto a muescas, denticulados y algunos segmentos de círculo algunas piezas de gran formato que algunos autores califican como ‘macrolítica’. Por último, la unidad I de esta zona del Abrigo ha proporcionado numerosos trapecios y piezas bifaciales de estilo campiñoide además de muescas y denticulados. Esta ocupación del Epipaleolítico con geométricos se fecha en torno a unos 7.500 años. La localización en superficie de algunos vestigios cerámicos atestigua la presencia humana, aunque esporádica, en el Neolítico.

El registro arqueológico del TOSSAL DE LA ROCA se completa con el hallazgo más importante de este asentamiento. Se trata de un conjunto de piezas de arte mueble con representaciones animalísticas grabadas sobre bloques y plaquetas. Dominan las figuras de ciervas y cápridos generalmente asiladas, aunque existen algunas superposiciones. El rasgo dominante de estas representaciones es su esquematismo. A ello hay que añadir un colgante de hueso decorado con motivos geométricos.

Los materiales se conservan en el MARQ (Museo Arqueológico de Alicante).

1.3 LEVANTINE ART IN THE 'RACO DEL CONDOIG'

Imagen de la Muestra del arte levantino CondoigA sample of Levantine Art in the municipality is located in Racó del Condoig, in a coat to the outside. The presence of hunter groups during the Neolithic period (from 7,000 to 4,000 years BC) is shown. It is a figure of a prisoner.

1.4 LEVANTINE ART IN THE ‘EL BARRANC DE LA GLEDA’
In the Barranco de la Gleda, there is an outer coat, in which remains of a painting of a human figure of schematic type in double Y, with the lower extremities longer and open.
1.5 NEOLITICO ‘LA COVA DEL PASSET’

Located in the Barranco del Girona, the cave has two entrances. It has found arrowheads, three disk-shaped grains of a necklace, hand-molded pottery, fragments of a polished stone ax, an iron key, human teeth, animal teeth, fragments of a human skull And abundant human and animal bones. It is a cave of multiple burial of the Neolithic or Enolithic era, with 3,000 years of antiquity.

1.6 IBERIC ‘ EL XARPOLAR’

Imagen del Yacimiento iberico El XarpolarOn the plateau of the Xarpolar, at an altitude of 904 meters and in the division between the municipal terms of Planes, Vall de Gallinera and Vall d’Alcalà is an important Iberian site inhabited by Iberian contéstanos. The walls of defense and remains of dwelling are conserved.

In 1928 he was discovered by F. Ponsell, making several tastings, whose materials are deposited in the Museum of Prehistory of Valencia and the Museum Camilo Visedo de Alcoi. To date no systematic excavation of the site has taken place. In the visits made by staff of the Museum of Alcoi have provided arms, fibula, Iberian ceramics with geometric decoration and figures of style S. Miguel de Liria, Greek ceramics of black varnish and coins of Cástulo.

Its occupation ranges from the fifth century to the first century BC. There is no trace of it being inhabited in the Roman times.

1.7 AGE OF THE BRONZE 'LA PEÑA DE LA RETURA'

At the top of the Penya de la Retura, an archaeological site dating from the Bronze Age was discovered, in which ceramic fragments were discovered with a predominance of smooth surface, a fragment of an archer’s bracelet, a piece of a hand mill, and A fragment of polished stone.

1.8 AGE OF THE BRONZE ‘ POBLADO EN EL TOSSAL DE LA ROCA’
At the top of the rocky spur of Tossal de la Roca, at a height of 691 meters, stands a village of the Bronze Age. In the deposit have been fragments of ceramic, three teeth of flint sickles, polished stone, a smoothing done with diorite, a percusor and remains of idols made in stone.